Cloning is the process of producing individuals with identical or virtually identical DNA, either naturally or artificially. Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. In species that use the XY sex-determination system, the offspring will always be female. The cloned dinosaurs are used to populate the Jurassic Park wildlife park for the entertainment of visitors. Cloning techniques are laboratory processes used to produce offspring that are genetically identical to the donor parent. Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. Notably, although the first[clarification needed] clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell. Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. [105] Newsweek's 10 March 1997 issue also critiqued the ethics of human cloning, and included a graphic depicting identical babies in beakers. Researchers are also considering cloning endangered species such as the giant panda and cheetah. There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used. [13] This creates a one-cell embryo. Other ethical concerns about cloning involve the fact that the current process has a very high failure rate. The first mammalian cloning (resulting in Dolly the sheep) had a success rate of 29 embryos per 277 fertilized eggs, which produced three lambs at birth, one of which lived. In an article in the 8 November 1993 article of Time, cloning was portrayed in a negative way, modifying Michelangelo's Creation of Adam to depict Adam with five identical hands. Some clones already exist in nature. A recurring sub-theme of cloning fiction is the use of clones as a supply of organs for transplantation. However, by 2014 researchers were reporting cloning success rates of seven to eight out of ten[15] and in 2016, a Korean Company Sooam Biotech was reported to be producing 500 cloned embryos per day.[16]. The most likely purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research. Bob Sullivan, Technology correspondent for NBC News. [110], The process of cloning is represented variously in fiction. [32], Discussion of cloning in the popular media often presents the subject negatively. The successfully developed embryos are then placed in surrogate recipients, such as a cow or sheep in the case of farm animals. " - Nature - First cloned endangered species dies 2 days after birth - January 12, 2001", "Researchers revive plan to clone the Tassie tiger", "Resurrecting the Extinct Frog with a Stomach for a Womb", "Long Now Foundation, Revive and Restore Project", "Generations of Cloned Mice With Normal Lifespans Created: 25th Generation and Counting", "TIME Magazine – U.S. The remaining clones have been dispersed everywhere in the world to conduct further experiments to expand their lifespans, save for at least 10 who remained in Academy City, and the last clone, who was not fully developed when the experiment stopped. Scientists have been successful in cloning a number of different animals. [111] Science fiction films such as The Matrix and Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones have featured scenes of human foetuses being cultured on an industrial scale in mechanical tanks. A number of alternative techniques are available, such as chemical sensitisation of cells, electroporation, optical injection and biolistics. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005 Want to thank TFD for its existence? Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death. "Rise of the Clones." In binary fission, the bacterial DNA is replicated and the original cell is divided into two identical cells. This is an asexual form of reproduction that is only found in females of some insects, crustaceans, nematodes,[20] fish (for example the hammerhead shark[21]), and lizards including the Komodo dragon[21] and several whiptails. [120], In the 2013 television series Orphan Black, cloning is used as a scientific study on the behavioral adaptation of the clones. Finally, the transfected cells are cultured. Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chrom… She later discovers that the sole source of food for clones, called 'Soap', is manufactured from the clones themselves. Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction. [14] As the procedure could not be automated, and had to be performed manually under a microscope, SCNT was very resource intensive. "World's Biggest Animal Cloning Center Set for '16 in a Skeptical China." [24] If both embryos are successful, it gives rise to monozygotic (identical) twins. As a consequence, clones such as Dolly that are born from SCNT are not perfect copies of the donor of the nucleus. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. In 2003, a banteng was successfully cloned, followed by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. A somatic cell is any type of body cell other than a sex cell. Although these steps are invariable among cloning procedures a number of alternative routes can be selected; these are summarized as a cloning strategy. The term clone is used in horticulture to refer to descendants of a single plant which were produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis. Clones of adult animals are created by a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer. Notable experiments include: Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. The process begins by removing the nucleus (containing the DNA) from an egg cell and inserting a nucleus from the adult cell to be cloned. A key point to remember is that cloning is achieved when the oocyte maintains its normal functions and instead of using sperm and egg genomes to replicate, the oocyte is inserted into the donor's somatic cell nucleus. In humans, identical twins are similar to clones. A major objection to human cloning is that cloned embryos are used to produce embryonic stem cells and the cloned embryos are ultimately destroyed. 2003N-0573, Draft Animal Cloning Risk Assessment", Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning, "Inhibition of class IIb histone deacetylase significantly improves cloning efficiency in mice", "This Korean lab has nearly perfected dog cloning, and that's just the start". [74][75], Religious groups are divided, with some opposing the technology as usurping "God's place" and, to the extent embryos are used, destroying a human life; others support therapeutic cloning's potential life-saving benefits. The goal is not to create cloned human beings (called "reproductive cloning"), but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat disease. It successfully cloned sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs. Regina Bailey is a board-certified registered nurse, science writer and educator. de Grey, Aubrey; Rae, Michael (September 2007). During that procedure, a donor embryo is split in two distinct embryos, that can then be transferred via embryo transfer. [13], SCNT is seen as a good method for producing agriculture animals for food consumption. Artificial cloning of organisms may also be called reproductive cloning. [70], Opponents of cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe[71] and that it could be prone to abuse (leading to the generation of humans from whom organs and tissues would be harvested),[72][73] as well as concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large. These cells could potentially eliminate the need for human embryonic stem cells in therapeutic research. [109], Cloning is a recurring theme in a number of contemporary science fiction films, ranging from action films such as Jurassic Park (1993), Alien Resurrection (1997), The 6th Day (2000), Resident Evil (2002), Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2002), The Island (2005) and Moon (2009) to comedies such as Woody Allen's 1973 film Sleeper. Cloning features strongly among the science fiction conventions parodied in Woody Allen's Sleeper, the plot of which centres around an attempt to clone an assassinated dictator from his disembodied nose. [9] In this technique a single-cell suspension of cells that have been exposed to a mutagenic agent or drug used to drive selection is plated at high dilution to create isolated colonies, each arising from a single and potentially clonal distinct cell. The experiment ended when Tōma Kamijō saved and foiled the experiment. This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg from which the nucleus has been removed, or to a cell from a blastocyst from which the nucleus has been removed. [18] As an example, some European cultivars of grapes represent clones that have been propagated for over two millennia.