The relationship between culture and religion is complex and constantly changing with context and diversity, but its influence on ethics is significant. The values of the two ethnic societies clash. For example, religious rituals (one type of practice) unite believers in a religion and separate nonbelievers. What and who determines cultural identity then? A critical evaluation of values is necessary. Anthropology as the attempt at studying culture and religion requires a definition of what constitutes religion. The hierarchical structure of Enlightenment arrangements of cultures, races and religions needs to be reconsidered. Then, it is most unlikely that there will be change as to how such a group understands its own identity. Human behaviour and activity (action) - including religion as human activity - must be interpreted to gain meaning from such activity. During the 19th century, the Primordialist view governed relations between religion and ethnicity. (p. 89). Can you belong to the Western culture and still practice Muslim religion (cf. Culture is seen as an all-encompassing reality, as a way of life of a people. James Cox (2010:3-7) provides direction on this matter by suggesting that studying the groups of definitions has more value than studying the definitions themselves. Rosalind Hackett (2005:144) confirms the difficulty of indicating boundaries between religion and culture because of the fact that religion and anthropology share in many social and cultural theories. This endeavour becomes even more urgent when considering current world events. This sentiment is also witnessed in the discourse on immigration policies in the United States. So when an individual belonging to a particular religion comes from a specific cultural background and ends up in a different cultural environment, the individual integrates the religious convictions into the new cultural context, as there should be a clear difference between the religion and the culture of origin (Ramadan 2010:215). The opposite relation between culture and religion is also possible: religion in opposition to culture (religion as anti-culture). Culture is a body of knowledge that is acquired by people through years of being together in one society, while religion is the belief system directed towards the supreme deity and yet this is something that may or may not be accepted by each person in a culture. The essence of Islam is religious (Ramadan 2010:214). The return of philosophy in the 18th and 19th centuries to romanticism and mythology is an indication of this, as is the persistent 20th-century search both for description and transcendence of the depth of human experience. [ Links ], Minnema, L., 2014, Correlations between types of culture, styles of communication ad forms of interreligious dialogue, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 70(1), Art #2604, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v70i1.2604        [ Links ], Mulder, D.C., 1985, 'Het vak godsdienstwetenskap', in D.J. (ed. One must, however, recognise the circumstantial process that contributed to the formation of identity and perceptions of the other. To this question must be added, can you be a white Christian in Africa without being labelled a colonist and oppressor? It will, however, be important to first of all discuss the ways in which religion, ethnicity and culture relate. Even later a fourth subsystem was added: 'the cultural subsystem', a system consisting of abstract and symbolically mediated entities (Munch & Smelser 1992:93). The practices of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and Judaism are considered throughout, while the conclusion emphasizes the current period (immediately following the Second World War) as a crucial turning point in the interaction of religion and culture, especially in Europe (chapter 10).