Phospholipids are present in small amounts (up to 1 % dry weight) in all plant or animal tissues because phospholipids form the boundary layers (membranes) of all cells and sub-cellular particles. Thus, the ‘heads’ tend to face the water or the aqueous solution. Phospholipids belong to a group of lipids called amphipathic lipids. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Unlike triacylglycerols, phospholipids do not have short-chain fatty acids, C14:0 being the shortest chain fatty acid in significant concentration. About 60–65% of the phospholipids in milk are associated with the milk fat globule membrane, which surrounds the milk fat droplets. The major phospholipids originated from animals are eggs, meats, fishes and milk. Phospholipids such as PE have a primary amine group, a necessary substrate for Maillard reaction. The phospholipid content in soybeans is not much different from the content in other oilseeds, but most oilseeds contain about 40 % oil, while soybeans contain only about 20 %. By chemical modification of peanut phospholipids, their physical and chemical properties can be further improved, thereby greatly broadening the field of application. It mainly contains phosphatidylcholine (PC, Fig. Domestic development and utilization of plant phospholipids are mainly focused on soybean phospholipids and rapeseed phospholipids. In contrast, the phospholipid heads may interact with water. Phospholipids are a key component of all cell membranes. Phospholipids from marine animals owning higher omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have higher demand than warm-blooded animals although they have same concentration of phospholipids. Phospholipids (PL) are a class of lipids whose molecule has a hydrophilic "head" containing a phosphate group, and two hydrophobic "tails" derived from fatty acids, joined by an alcohol residue. Based on the analysis of the above problems, there are two aspects that are worthy of further research. In addition, regeneration of other antioxidants also plays an important role for phospholipids functioning as an antioxidant. Then, Maillard reaction products such as browning pigments and melanoidin possess high free radical scavenging capability, which can inhibit lipid oxidation from the initiation and propagation steps. © Biology Online. PC is the main composition of animal phospholipids. MacGibbon, M.W. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Phospholipids are also involved in metabolism and cell signaling. Due to their amphiphilic nature, phospholipids are often used as emulsifiers. DHA-containing phospholipids have been recognized as beneficial lipids that promote cancer cell differentiation induced by cell differentiators for both non-fixative cancer cells (Tochisawa et al., 1997; Hosokawa et al., 2001) and fixative cancer cells (Hossain et al., 2006). © 2001-2020 BiologyOnline. Plants and animals need elements, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium for proper growth and developme.. This is the first antioxidant mechanism that phospholipids participate in Maillard reaction. This is essential in the formation of a lipid bilayer feature of biological membranes. Such a compound is called amphiphilic or amphipathic. Koretaro Takahashi, ... Tomoko Okada, in Lipids in Nanotechnology, 2012. It was reported that phospholipids acted as metal chelator where 1 ppm ferrous iron was added into bulk oil system. This is because phospholipids are amphipathic compounds in a way that the ‘head’ is hydrophilic and the lipophilic ‘tail’ is hydrophobic. Therefore, basic theoretical research on peanut phospholipids is a good direction. Nazimah Hamid, ... John Robertson, in Seaweed Sustainability, 2015.