This article examines some of the major environ­mental impacts of transport development. 1. Land consumption is not just a direct consequence of transport development; it may also occur indirectly as land is utilised for the extraction of the raw materials (principally aggregate) required for construction. These emissions are also responsible for the increase in ‘global warming’. Disclaimer 8. Table 7.2 indicates main environmental effects of transport. Obviously, however, the impact of adverse landscape change is likely to be much more significant in areas of high scenic value, such as national parks and mountain passes, or where a flat topography allows visual intrusion over a wide area. Long strips of land are consumed, and large areas effectively divided into smaller ones (severance). Research on environmental impacts of tourism transport mainly relates to effects at the tourism destination (Hunter and Green, 1995), and neglects the environmental impacts created by tourism transport to the destinations which, as we will show, seriously hampers a good understanding of the relations between tourism and the environment. 10 Ways to Minimize Your Environment Impact Whilst Travelling Take the road less travelled Every year, tens of thousands (or millions depending on the place) of tourists wander along exactly the same tourist paths, wearing down the natural environment at a rate faster than it is able to recuperate from. With reference to water pollution, for example, one could point to the ecological destruction associated with catastrophic, and internationally reported, oil leaks from stricken tanks or the contamination of coastal ecosystems. There are significant differences in fuel efficiencies between various modes of transport, for example, consumption of energy in cars is more among urban transport modes. It is estimated that in developed countries like UK. Account Disable 11. The work mainly emphasizes the way in … Previous land uses, such as forestry, agriculture, housing and nature reserves, may be displaced, and zones adjacent to the new development rendered unsuitable for wide range of activities. In brief, transport systems have had environmental effects. Together they form a unique fingerprint. Ecologists believe that the rapid increase in the number of vehicles on our roads, which has taken place without any real restriction, is fast devel­oping into an environmental crisis. Some of the major environmental impact of transport development are: The growth of speedy transportation is man’s greatest achievement in minimising distances but at the same time it has also become a cause of environmental degradation. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Abstract. Concern over the environmental consequences of transport devel­opment is long-standing. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 4. Some of the ways in which tourism adversely impacts the environment have been mentioned below: Air pollution Transport by air, road, and rail is continuously increasing in response to the rising number reported that the number of international air passengers worldwide rose from 88 million in 1972 to 344 million in 1994. Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Major environmental impacts of European tourist transport'. Although there has been a significant improvement in the fuel efficiency in cars and other automobiles. However, the indirect or secondary effects of transport development may also be responsible for many adverse impacts on wildlife, including those associated with air, water and noise pollution (described below). The traffic increases up to 142 per cent predicted for the year 2025, the energy consumption will continue to increase substantially, in spite of fuel efficiency measures. The latter aspect is true of pipelines carrying volatile materials (such as pressurised gas), for example, where a corridor of land along the route must be kept undeveloped for safety reason, even if the pipeline itself causes no direct consumption of land. Exhaust fumes are the major source of atmospheric pollution by the motor vehicle. This is a poisonous gas caused as a result of incomplete combustion; This is caused by the evapo­ration of petrol and the discharge of only partially burnt hydrocarbons; Nitrogen oxides, tetraethyl lead and carbon dust particles; Organic compounds containing the group CHO in their structures. Journal of Transport Geography, 15, 83-93. By merging European passenger transport demand data with international tourism data, a new data model was created, giving insight in the environmental impacts of tourism transport between the places of residence of European Union citizens and their tourist destinations. Major impact of transport-related land loss and land use change may be a decline in the visual amenity or aesthetic attraction of the landscape. Plagiarism Prevention 5. Development of marinas and breakwaters can cause changes in currents and coastlines. In 1950 there were 25 million international tourist arrivals, in 1970 the number was 166 million, and by 1990 it had grown to 435 million. The most obvious way of achieving a reduction in pollution by motor vehicles is to reduce the emission of fumes at source. Information on the scale of transport related landscape damage and loss of visual amenity is not widely available, partly due to the difficulties of assessing existing landscape quality. Report a Violation 10. The use of road tunnels or viaducts can reduce severance, especially in urban areas, though the latter introduce significant visual impact, and both solutions are costly. In considering the relationship between transport and the environment we are immediately confronted with a potential paradox: on the one hand, modern industrial societies pursue economic growth through the open exchange of people, raw materials, energy, goods and services in an increasingly global marketplace, yet, on the other, the transport systems required to allow such exchange may be exerting pressures on the environment that degrade the functional integrity and quality of natural ecosystems to the extent that the prospect of maintaining or achieving a high quality of life in many human societies is threatened. From 1990 to 2018 numbers more than tripled reaching 1.442 billion. Some severance effects, notably those of non-motorway type roads, are only partial, though increasing traffic density and speed increases the danger of pedestrian crossings on the same level. Image Guidelines 4. It is estimated that … Uploader Agreement, Measures for the Reduction of Impact on Environment, 7 Problems of Urban Transport (Explained With Diagram), 7 Major Geomorphic Theories of Landform Development, 4 Models of Transport Development (Explained With Diagram), Essay on Asia: It’s Geographical Significance, International Tourism in India: Introduction, History, Trends, Opportunities and Future, Forestry: Definition, Branches, Costs, Programme and Conclusion | Geography, Contribution of Russia to World Geography (In Hindi), French Scholars and their Contribution to Geography in Hindi. The European Union’s Fifth Environmental Action Programme states that transport is “vital to the distribution of goods and services, and to trade and to regional development”, but argues that current trends towards increasing transport demand are likely to result in “greater inefficiency, congestion, pollution, wastage of time and value, danger to life and general economic loss” (Commission of the European Communities, 1992:6).