The main drawback of this method is its high cost. In this method, unlike flooding, wetting is done of only a part of the field. Drip irrigation is particularly suitable for water of poor quality (saline water). ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the important methods of irrigation, i.e., (1) Surface Irrigation (2) Overhead or Sprinkler Irrigation (3) Drip or Trickle Irrigation. Copyright 10. 4. The control head consists of valves to control the discharge and pressure In the entire system. It is best suited to areas where water quality is marginal, land is steeply sloping or undulating and of poor quality, where water or labour are expensive, or where high value crops require frequent water applications. Thus it can easily be automated. Drip Irrigation Planning and Installation Guide Print. When there are fields with uneven surface. (vii) The fields do not get eroded or degraded since there is no excessive use of water on the fields. Thus, the water loss due to infiltration is prevented or reduced. Crops just require the right amount for good growth. They are fixed nozzles attached to the pipe, perforated pipe and rotating sprayers. The spacing of furrows varies according to the nature of the crop. 6.1.4 Suitable irrigation But with growing realisation of the value of water this method has been introduced in other countries of the world particularly in desert areas. Larger the absorption rate larger the size of stream required and shorter the strip length. The first step to correctly setting up a drip irrigation system … They are usually spaced more than 1 metre apart with one or more emitters used for a single plant such as a tree. They consist of underground main pipe lines, portable lateral flexible pipelines and sprinklers. 3. The reason is that the water quickly spreads over the entire area before it goes deep, below the root zone depths, into the ground and joins the water table. Sprinklers can be used on all soil types of any topography. … DC motor pump M1 is connected between the normally-open (N/O) pin and pole of the relay. When remaining In place during more than are not available. water onto the soil at very low rates (2-20 litres/hour) from a system of small Overhead or Sprinkler Irrigation: In this method an attempt is made to simulate natural rainfall. However, no rigid limit can be fixed in any case. In this method parallel pipes are installed at a suitable spacing (say 15 m) and supported on the posts. Surface Irrigation: In this method water flows and spreads over the surface of the land. It is mostly adopted in tea and coffee gardens. But the time has come to explore the possibilities of using this method on large scale. 6.1.3 Suitable soils In this method, relatively level plots are enclosed by small levees or embankments. Hence, […] Deep furrow irrigation system is generally used for sugar cane, orchards, and some field crops also. 4. There are three general type of the sprayers. While drip systems … Drip irrigation is an ideal solution for irregular or small areas. This method can be subdivided into two groups depending upon the mode of levee construction. For this reason it is most suitable when water is scarce. A large rate of application for short time will result in more uniform and economical water use. It is just another way of applying water. In the side of field or main ditch small openings are made, and through the openings water flows into one or more furrows. If participants are using this diagram as a guide for installation, take note that some reducer fittings may be required to connect all three components. However, automation There is great scope and likelihood of this system becoming popular in our country in the coming years. In India this method has come into use since 1950. The name of the method itself implies water saving. Drip irrigation is sometimes called trickle irrigation and involves dripping A typical drip irrigation system is shown in Figure 61 and consists of the following components: Pump unit Control head Main and submain lines Laterals … 6.2 Drip System Layout. Main-tenance costs are often lower due to reduced overspray, runoff, erosion, compaction, water staining, and property damage. Irrigation water enters the closed area and subsequently floods it. It helps in covering the entire width of the strip. The water jets emerge out of the pipe line at an angle of 135° to the vertical. A typical drip irrigation system is shown in Figure 61 and consists of the following components: Figure 61 An example of a drip irrigation system layout. Following conditions favour implementation of sprinkler irrigation: 1. 6.1 When to Use Drip Irrigation 3. (iv) In this method plants in their early tender age are not damaged by flow of water. (vi) It helps in economical use of fertilizers since they are applied along with irrigation water in solution with it. 6.2 Drip System Layout The water savings that can be made using drip irrigation are the reductions in deep percolation, in surface runoff and in evaporation from the soil. 2. Thus one irrigation furrow being provided for each row. The method is very clear from Fig. The surface slope from 2 to 4 m/1000 m is best suited. Pumping plant is kept at one point for the whole system. (ii) There is no chance of land getting waterlogged and thereby becoming saline or alkaline. roots grow is wetted (Figure 60), unlike surface and sprinkler irrigation, which (ii) Also, loss of water due to deep percolation and evaporation is restricted. The method is still in initial stages of development in our country. 6.1.2 Suitable slopes For row crops more closely spaced emitters may be used to wet a strip of soil. There is a general surface slope from opening to the lower end. This is not true. A BC548 transistor is used to drive relay RL1. Drip irrigation systems are an automated method to watering garden and plant life. This may be as, low as 30% of the volume of soil wetted by the other methods. Image Guidelines 5. For economic and efficient use following points should be kept in mind: 1. Prohibited Content 3. Drip irrigation is most suitable for row crops (vegetables, soft fruit), tree and vine crops where one or more emitters can be provided for each plant. Flooding method consists in applying the water by flooding the land of rather smooth and flat topography. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the drip irrigation system components, their functions and properties. Mainlines, submains and laterals supply water from the control head into the fields. Crop water use is not changed by the method of applying water. Short strips may be more economical, the optimum distance is 90 metres. Drip irrigation kit (this will be helpful to get you started, but make sure you have the supplies below either in the kit or in addition to the kit); Two-way garden hose connector (1/2” faucet hose fitting) Irrigation timer; Pressure regulator; Mainline drip irrigation hose (1/2” poly drip irrigation tubing) (v) The fields do not get infested with weeds and pest due to non-availability of excess water. The water passes through pipes under pressure. 6.1. It is generally used for grain and fodder crops. The pump unit takes water from the source and provides the right pressure for delivery into the pipe system. water. Figure 60 With drip irrigation, only the part of the soil in which the roots grow is wetted. 2. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. It is best adopted for heavy soils also. Experiments have already been undertaken on this aspect at various research centres in the country. When furrows are 8 to 12 cm deep they are called corrugations or shallow furrows. DRIP IRRIGATION HANDBOOK 9 DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM … Under high temperatures and strong winds heavy evaporation loss takes place thereby offsetting the saving in water. (g) It does not prevent use of machinery for land preparation, cultivation, harvesting, etc. Dripping water to individual plants also means that the method can be very efficient in water use. They are mainly used for irrigation in orchards and nurseries. (vi) Furrow making is a simple and cheap method and working expenses are also nominal. To divert water into the strip and to cutoff the water supply after the whole strip is flooded a gate is provided in the field channel at the head of each strip.