Calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizer is a new nitrogenous and calcareous fertilizer with characteristics of high efficiency and quickly make-up nitrogen, applied in greenhouse and large-area farmland. What is ammonium nitrate, why can it explode, and what happens when it does? It’s a source of nitrogen, important for the growth of plants. Explosions of ammonium nitrate fertilizer in storage or transportation are preventable accidents, Review on thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Its dissolution in water is endothermic, leading to its use in some instant cold packs. The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of ammonia with the chemical formula NH4NO3, is a white crystalline solid at room temperature and standard pressure. Calcium Nitrate explosives?, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 September 2020, at 13:00. If you want to learn more about the chemistry behind ammonium nitrate explosions, I’ve provided some useful links below. The graphic in this article is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Single Use Hot Packs. The energy of the detonation wave causes the ammonium nitrate in the fertilizer to vaporize – the solid fertilizer becomes a gas in an instant. [6] It is also used in place of ammonium nitrate where ammonium nitrate is banned.[2]. [3], Consumption of CAN was 3.54 million tonnes in 1973/74, 4.45 million tonnes in 1983/84, 3.58 million tonnes in 1993/94. Cold packs also contain distilled water and when the inner linings are broken, the ammonium nitrate reacts to the water and causes an exothermic reaction. In its pure form, ammonium nitrate isn’t usually explosive – in fact, it’s safe to handle. Today’s news has been dominated by the terrible explosion in Beirut, Lebanon. The exception is ammonium nitrate, which is not only toxic; it's potentially explosive. Fertilizer manufacturers began adding calcium carbonate to pure ammonium nitrate in the 1970s to make it less explosive. Fertilizer grade CAN contains roughly 8% calcium and 21-27% nitrogen. Kauffman said, in principle, ammonium nitrate should be highly explosive by itself, but it is not. It is also used in place of ammonium nitrate where ammonium nitrate is banned. The force of the ammonium nitrate explosion is provided by the rapid generation of gas as it breaks down. Below infographic summarizes the difference between calcium ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate. The CAN is not used directly, but is instead first converted to ammonium nitrate; "More than 85% of the IEDs used against U.S. forces in Afghanistan contain homemade explosives, and of those, about 70% are made with ammonium nitrate derived from calcium ammonium nitrate". [5] Production of calcium ammonium nitrate consumed 3% of world ammonia production in 2003.[5]. Ammonium nitrate’s major use is as a fertiliser – this accounts for around 78% of its use (by volume) worldwide. Furthermore, calcium ammonium nitrate is important as a fertilizer, useful in instant cold packs while ammonium nitrate is useful as a fertilizer, as a major component in explosives. It is commonly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer, and it has also been used as an oxidizing agent in explosives, including improvised explosive devices. Heating also poses a danger: ammonium nitrate decomposes at around 230˚C, and can explode when heated to between 260–300˚C if it’s confined. Calcium ammonium nitrate is used in some instant cold packs as an alternative to ammonium nitrate. You might have wonder what caused the plume of smoke seen after the explosion in Beirut to have an orange-red colour. However, this highly valued and legally produced agricultural fertilizer is easily reprocessed by insurgents and used as the main charge, or explosive element, in IEDs. Most calcium ammonium nitrate is used as a fertilizer. If you’re looking to help the huge numbers of people affected by the explosion in Beirut, the Lebanese Red Cross is accepting donations, and Impact Lebanon are raising disaster relief funds. Calcium chloride is a common salt that is often used to melt ice from roads and sidewalks. This reaction isn’t the only one taking place, however. One variety of calcium ammonium nitrate is made by adding powdered limestone to ammonium nitrate;[1][2] another, fully water-soluble version, is a mixture of calcium nitrate and ammonium nitrate, which crystallizes as a hydrated double salt:[3] 5Ca(NO3)2•NH4NO3•10H2O. I am hoping to test a charge of 3kg consisting of: 5% aluminium powder (400 mesh), 6% kerosene, and 89% calcium nitrate. SSAN is also classed as a security sensitive explosive under Reference B. Albeit with a large booster charge. Calcium ammonium nitrate or CAN, also known as nitro-limestone or nitrochalk, is a widely used inorganic fertilizer, accounting for 4% of all nitrogen fertilizer used worldwide in 2007. In these explosive mixtures, it acts as an oxidising agent, helping other materials burn. It’s also used in some explosive mixtures which are used for mining and quarrying. Ammonium nitrate is toxic if ingested. Boosted by 500 grams of a KClO3 cheddite composition. SSAN retains its dangerous goods classification under Reference A and is referred to as an explosive of class 5.1, class 9 or a non-dangerous good in the case of calcium ammonium nitrate. Fertilizer grade CAN contains roughly 8% calcium and 21-27% nitrogen. Heating also poses a danger: ammonium nitrate decomposes at around 230˚C, and can explode when heated to between 260–300˚C if it’s confined. Most calcium ammonium nitrate is used as a fertilizer. Unlike ammonium nitrate,[4] these calcium containing formulations are not classified as oxidizers by the United States Department of Transportation. Specifically, in the past calcium nitrate has been considered as a less potent minor substitute for a portion of the ammonium nitrate in certain inorganic oxidizing salt based compositions. The method as defined in claim 1 wherein sufficient ammonium nitrate, slaked or unslaked lime, liquid water miscible organic fuel, and additional water, if necessary, are mixed and reacted to form an explosive composition comprising from about 5 to about 25 percent by weight calcium nitrate; from about 10 to about 25 percent liquid water miscible organic fuel; from about 3 to about 8 percent water; … Check to make sure the respiratorUse a vacuum or a wet method to reduce dust during